Indonesia: Pontianak

Pontianak (Chinese: 坤甸, pinyin: Kūndiān, Hakka Pha̍k-fa-sṳ: Khuntîen, Teochew Peng'im: Kung1Diêng6, Jawi: كوت بونتياناك) ; is the capital of the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan, founded by Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie as a capital of Sultanate of Kadriyah ( Kesultanan Kadriyah ) in 23 Oktober 1771 / 14 Rajab 1185 Hijriah. Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie developed Pontianak as a trading port on the island of Borneo, occupying an area of 107.82 km² in the delta of the Kapuas River. It is located precisely on the equator, hence it is widely known as Kota Khatulistiwa (Equatorial City). The city center is actually less than 3 kilometres (2 mi) south of the equator. Pontianak is the 26th largest city in Indonesia in terms of population, as well as the fifth largest city in the island of Borneo in terms of population after Samarinda, Banjarmasin, Kuching and Balikpapan.

The city was founded as a small Malay fishing village at the bank of the Kapuas River. It then became the seat of the Pontianak Sultanate for several centuries. Pontianak was then incorporated into the Dutch East Indies after an agreement between the Pontianak Sultanate and the Dutch Government. During the colonial era, Pontianak was the seat of the Residentie Westerafdeeling van Borneo, one of the residency of the Dutch East Indies. When the Japanese occupied the Dutch East Indies, Pontianak became the site of the Pontianak massacre, in which many Malay aristocrats and sultans as well as people from other ethnic groups were massacred by the Imperial Japanese Army. After the Japanese surrendered, Pontianak becomes part of the Republic of Indonesia and was designated as the capital city of the province of West Kalimantan.

Pontianak is a multicultural city, as different ethnic groups such as the Dayak, Malay and Chinese lives in the city. This has created a very unique culture that cannot be found in other parts of Indonesia. Different languages are spoken in Pontianak, such as Pontianak Malay, Dayak language and different dialects of Chinese.

Pontianak is connected by air to other cities of Indonesia as well as some cities in Malaysia such as Kuala Lumpur and Kuching. Well paved roads connects Pontianak to other towns such as Ketapang and Singkawang as well as other provinces. As Pontianak lies on the Trans Kalimantan Highway, it is possible to travel to East Malaysia and Brunei by land by using the Trans Kalimantan Highway. Several bus operates routes from Pontianak to Kuching in Malaysia and Bandar Seri Begawan in Brunei.

In 1778, Dutch colonialists from Batavia entered Pontianak, led by Willem Ardinpola. Netherlands when it occupies an area opposite the imperial palace now known as the Tanah Seribu or the Verkendepaal area.

On July 5, 1779, the Netherlands made an agreement with the Sultanate of Pontianak regarding the Verkendepaal so that it to serve the area of activities of the Dutch nation which later became the seat of government Resident het Hoofd Westeraffieling van Borneo (Regional Head residency of Borneo West) and Assistant Resident het Hoofd der Affleeling van Pontianak ( Resident assistant Chief of Pontianak regency). This area then became Controleur Onderafdeeling van het Hoofd Hoofd Pontianak or Plaatselijk Bestuur van Pontianak. Assistant Resident het Hoofd van der Afdeeling Pontianak (Pontianak Regent sort of) set Plaatselijk Fonds. The agency manages eigendom or government wealth and take care of tax funds.

Pontianak lies on the Equator track with a height ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 meters above sea level. Cities are separated by the Kapuas Besar River, Kapuas Kecil River and Landak River. Thus Pontianak city is divided into three parts. Pontianak is located in the delta of the Kapuas River with a relatively flat conturtopographic with a ground level elevation ranging from 0.1 s / d 1.9 meters above sea level. Almost the entire area of Pontianak City and surrounding areas within a radius of 19 km of estuary river estuary lies in the lowlands which on average the height of the land is 1–2 meters above sea level and less than 2%.

The geological conditions in Pontianak City fall into the category of peneplant and alluvial sediments that are physically a clay type. This type of soil is in the form of peat and silt deposits of Kapuas river. Under these conditions, the soil is very unstable and has a very low carrying capacity. The soil composition along the river is formed from a precipitation process that produces a tropaquent area coupled with tropofluevent and under permanently saturated fluvawuent conditions. It is derived from the new sapphire sediment from various compositions and shapes, including organic matter.

Pontianak consists of a kind of soil organosol, gray, humus and alluvial with different characteristics. At some points, the thickness of the peat soils reaches up to 1–6 meters, thus causing a poor carrying capacity if it is designated to construct large buildings to make it as a farm.

The 2010 census enumerated Pontianak's population at 554,764; the latest official estimate (from January 2014) is 573,751. Population is an important element in urban and regional planning. In the funding, the elements of the population among others are needed to calculate the land needs, the needs of facilities and utilities of a region, predict the movement of transportation, and provide an overview of the characteristics of a region. Important aspects of the population in its link with planning are population size, population distribution and population composition.

Researchers conducted research on population data in the city of Pontianak during the last 2 years i.e., 2010 - 2015 collected by the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) Pontianak by accessing the data online. According to the data obtained, Population Growth Rate in Pontianak City in the period of 1990-2000 is 0.7 percent per year, while for the period 2000-2010 increased to 1.8 percent per year.

The other prevailing language in Pontianak is the Chinese language. Several varieties of Chinese exists in Pontianak, the most notably being Teochew and Hakka. Teochew is a variant of Southern Min originated from Guangdong. It is mutually intelligible with Hokkien. Teochew are mostly spoken in central to the southern part of the city, as well as suburbs south of the city. Hakka are spoken at the northern part of the city, as well as in suburbs north of the city. There are more Teochew speakers then Hakka speakers in Pontianak. These varieties of Chinese has been influenced by other languages such as Malay, Indonesian and other languages. They have incorporated words from Indonesian and other languages. Therefore, original speakers in China may find it difficult communication using Teochew and Hakka with the people from Pontianak. Other Chinese variants such as the Cantonese and Hokkien are also spoken by only small numbers of the population.

Other languages such as the Javanese, Madurese, Buginese and different dialects of Dayak are also spoken.

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